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Thalamic Connectivity System Across Psychiatric Disorders: Current Status and Clinical Implications, Volume 2, Issue 4, October 2022, Pages 332-340
Wu Jeong Hwang
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the thalamic connectivity system at the neural and systemic levels. (Left) Schematic diagram showing the neural transmission of first-order (FO) and higher-order (HO) thalamic nuclei. (Right) Schematic diagram of pathways between the frontal and parietal cortices to the thalamus. AMY, amygdala; BG, basal ganglia; BS, brainstem; DCN, deep cerebellar nuclei; LD, lateral dorsal nucleus; LGN, lateral geniculate nucleus; LP, lateral posterior nucleus; LS, limbic system; MB, midbrain; MD, mediodorsal nucleus; MGN, medial geniculate nucleus; ML, medial lemniscus; PFC, prefrontal cortex; Retina IC, retina and intercollicular pathways; SMC, somatosensory cortex; VA, ventral anterior nucleus; VI, ventral intermediate nucleus; VL, ventral lateral nucleus; VP, ventral posterior nucleus; VPL, ventral posterolateral nucleus; VPM, ventral posteromedial nucleus.
Figure 2. A diagram of multiple levels of the system leading to thalamic connectivity system disruptions. The proteins and genes highly implicated in psychiatric disorders are often essential in glutamatergic transmission in the brain, particularly within the thalamic connectivity system, which comprises the thalamus and thalamic connectivity patterns. These effects are taken up to show disease-specific or general psychopathology characteristics within the system. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share reduced thalamo-prefrontal connectivity and increased thalamo-somatomotor/parietal connectivity. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by reduced thalamo-prefrontal connectivity and increased thalamo-temporal and thalamo-somatomotor/parietal connectivity patterns, and autism is characterized by increased thalamo-temporal and thalamo-somatomotor/parietal connectivity patterns. Shaded blue, red, pink, green, and gray areas indicate the prefrontal cortex, somatomotor/parietal cortex, temporal cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, respectively. GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid; NAA, N-acetylaspartate.